Refractive (LASIK, PRK, ICL)

What is refractive surgery?

Refractive procedures are optional procedures meant for those who have refractive errors (spectacle power) and need or want to get rid of their spectacles and/or contact lenses.

Who needs refractive surgery?

Patients may need or want to remove spectacles for various purposes including vocational (army, navy, marine, pilot, etc) and cosmetic issues.

Patients may not be able to wear contact lens because of contact lens intolerance or vocational issues (like sports).

Who is an ideal candidate for refractive surgery?

  • More than 18 years old
  • Stable refractive error (spectacle power) for at least one year
  • Have no major eye diseases (eg.dry eye, keratoconus, corneal opacity)
  • Have no major medical issues (diabetes, rheumatological diseases, certain drugs)
  • No history of pregnancy / breast feeding for last six months.

What are the diagnostics before refractive surgery?

Prior to refractive surgery, after complete eye examination, a corneal examination is done to find out whether the patient is a suitable candidate for refractive surgery and to find out whether complete correction is possible for the patient (Orbscan/ZDW3 in Susrut). ZDW3 also measures, and provides an opportunity to treat, higher order aberrations in the optical system of the eye.

What is LASIK?

LASIK involves reshaping the cornea, to correct the refractive error, with an excimer laser (Teneo 317 inSusrut).

First a flap is lifted from the front surface of the cornea. This can be done either with a blade (Moria SBK in Susrut) or without a blade (by using another laser – femtosecond laser, LenSx in Susrut).

After the flap is lifted, the excimer laser is used to reshape the underlying cornea. It usually takes less than 10 seconds for the excimer laser to reshape the cornea. During the laser application, the positioning of the laser on the eye is maintained by an eye-tracker, which compensates for any movement of the eye during the procedure. After the cornea is reshaped, the flap is repositioned in place.

What are the various types of LASIK treatments available in Susrut?

The excimer reshaping can be patterned in three ways

  • Wavefront Optimised (PROSCAN in Teneo 317)- Here the refractive error (as measured conventionally in the clinic) is entered in the excimer laser. Only spherical and cylindrical refractive errors can be corrected. Additional correction is made by the machine itself to reduce creation of spherical aberration (a type of higher order aberration).
  • Wavefront Guided (ZYOPTIX HD in Teneo 317)- Here wavefront data from ZDW3 is automatically transferred to the excimer laser. This pattern provides an opportunity to correct higher order aberrations (in addition to correcting spherical and cylindrical errors). It has been shown to provide better vision to patients with pre-existing higher order aberrations.
  • Near vision correction (SUPRACOR in Teneo 317) – For patients older than 45 years, who have both distance and near vision errors, this method provides intermediate/near vision (eg: mobile phone use) correction, in one or both eyes, in addition to distance vision correction in both eyes.

What is PRK?

PRK is an alternative refractive procedure. Here flap making is not required. The excimer laser reshapes the cornea, after the epithelium (outer lining) of the cornea is removed. Following PRK, the discomfort level is more and visual recovery takes longer, compared to LASIK. It is meant for patients with thinner corneas and certain corneal disorders (like EBMD).

What is phakic IOL / ICL / IPCL?

For patients with very high refractive error (spectacle power), which is not amenable to LASIK, the refractive error can be corrected by placing an intraocular lens (different from the intraocular lens implanted during cataract surgery) inside the eye.


LASIK in progress

LenSx (bladeless femto-LASIK)

Refractive specialists at Susrut

  • Dr. Navajyoti Goswami

    Dr. Navajyoti Goswami

    MBBS, MS

    Specialization :Glaucoma, Cataract and Refractive

    Dr.Navajyoti Goswami has done his MBBS from Gauhati University, and MS from Assam University, Silchar in the year 2005.

  • Dr. Doel Biswas

    MBBS, MS, Fellowship (Comprehensive Opthalmology)

    Specialization : Cataract & Refractive

    After completing MS, Dr. Biswas did Fellowship in Comprehensive Ophthalmology from SCEH, Delhi. However, her interest and skill lies in refractive surgery namely LASIK & ICL Implantation .

  • Dr. Sayan Das

    Dr. Sayan Das

    MBBS , MS , FRCS

    Specialization :Cornea, Cataract, Anterior Segment and Refractive

    Dr. Sayan Das passed MBBS from Calcutta Medical College (Calcutta University) in 1999. He completed his MS (Ophthalmology) from Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh in 2002. He was awarded FRCS (Ophthalmology) from Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 2007. He has several publications in journals and presentations at state, national and international conferences to his credit.

  • Dr. Vineet Agarwal

    Dr. Vineet Agarwal

    MBBS, DNB, FSEFRC (Cataract)

    Specialization : Cataract and Anterior Segment

    Dr. Vineet Agarwal has passed MBBS from Medical College, Calcutta (Calcutta University) in 2005. He has done his DNB (Ophthalmology) from B.R.Singh Hospital & Centre for Medical Education and Research (Kolkata) in 2012. He has done his fellowship in cataract surgery from Susrut Eye Foundation and Research Centre, Kolkata in 2014. Previously he has worked as a consultant and cataract surgeon in Disha Eye Hospital, Barrackpore. His areas of interest are cataract and general ophthalmology. He has been successfully performing ‘phacoemulsification procedures with the advanced machines and technologies.

  • Dr. Anirban Kundu

    Dr. Anirban Kundu

    MBBS , MS

    Specialization :Cataract & Anterior Segment

    Dr.Anirban Kundu completed his MS (Ophthalmology) from RIMS Ranchi & specializes in advanced techniques of cataract surgery and medical retina.

  • Dr. Hari Shanker Nag

    Dr. Hari Shanker Nag


    Specialization :Cataract, Anterior Segment and Glaucoma

    Dr. Hari Shanker Nag completed his MBBS from VSS Medical College (Sambalpur University) and MS from Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (Ranchi University). He has done fellowship in IOL Microsurgery and Phacoemulsification from Arvind Eye Hospital, Madurai.

  • Dr. Kumkum Ghosh

    Dr. Kumkum Ghosh


    Specialization :Cataract, Cornea and Anterior Segment

    Dr. Kumkum Ghosh has done her MBBS and DO from Calcutta University and DNB in Ophthalmology under National Board of Examination (New Delhi). She was awarded FRCS (Ophthalmology) from Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 2013. She has been working in this organisation for the past 6 years and successfully performing phacoemulsification procedures with most advanced machines and technologies. She has interest in cornea also and successfully performing keratoplasty and other corneal surgeries.

  • Dr. Alok Agrawal

    Dr. Alok Agrawal

    MBBS, MS, PhD, FMRF (Uvea), FSNEC (Uvea)

    Specialization : Cataract, Medical Retina and Uvea

    Dr. Alok Agrawal graduated in 2003. After his undergraduate degree he went and did a long-term observership in different eye hospitals in USA. He received his postgraduate degree from India in 2008 and Ph.D. in Ophthalmology in 2011. He did his long term fellowship training in Uveitis in 2008 at Sankara Nethralaya, India and later has acquired a wealth of experience in managing patients with a variety of complex ocular inflammatory diseases after doing another International Clinical Fellowship in Ocular Immunology & Inflammation from Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore in 2010. Dr. Alok’s uveitis research interests are mainly in Vogt-Koyanagi Harada disease, cytomegalovirus infection in the immunocompetent patients. Dr. Alok’s another passion is in uveitic cataract surgery.